Biometrics concerns the study of automated methods for identifying an individual or recognising an individual among many people by measuring one or more physical or behavioural features. Certain physical human features or behaviours are characteristics that are specific and can be uniquely associated to one person. Retinas, iris, DNA, fingerprint, palm print, or pattern of finger lengths are typical physical features that are specific to individuals. Also the voice print, gait, or handwriting can be used to this purpose.

Nowadays biometrics is rapidly evolving. This science is getting more and more accurate in recognising and identifying persons and behaviours. Consequently, these technologies become more and more attractive and effective in critical applications, such as to create safe personal IDs, to control the access to personal information or physical areas, to recognise terrorists or criminals, to study the movements of people, to monitor the human behaviour, and to create adaptive environments.

The use of biometrics in the real life often requires very complex signal and image processing and scene analysis, for example encompassing biometric feature extraction and identification, individual tracking, face tracking, eye tracking, liveness/anti-spoofing tests, and facial expression recognition.

This lecture will review the main biometric traits and the techniques supporting biometric identification and behaviour analysis.

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